We are talking about what is mycosis, what symptoms of lesions on the skin and nails are characteristic of this disease and how the fungus can be treated.
What is mycosis?
Mycosis, or fungus, is an infectious disease with a high rate of infection, which is provoked by parasitic fungi. It can affect both humans and animals. The infection affects the skin of the face and body, the scalp, the mucous membranes (including the internal organs) and the nail plates.
The disease is prone to relapse, so it can be difficult to recover from the fungus without consulting a doctor.
Causes of fungi
Infection with a fungus can occur through direct contact with the carrier of the infection or surfaces and objects in which there are spores of pathogenic fungi. Some fungal pathogens are considered opportunistic, for example, the genus Candida. This means that they live in the body and sometimes bring benefits, but in certain situations provoke disease.
However, harmful fungi do not always cause disease. Normally, the immune system of a healthy person easily copes with a fungal infection, preventing it from spreading throughout the body. What are the preconditions for the development of mycoses?
Like any infection, the fungus is more likely to infect people with weakened immune systems. People who have recently had an infectious disease and have been taking antibacterial agents for a long time are at high risk for mycosis. Also, cancer patients being treated with cytostatics are prone to fungal infection. This includes people with immune deficiencies such as HIV and AIDS.
Non-observance of personal hygiene
Fungi often attack people who neglect personal hygiene - do not use an individual foot towel, do not put the flip in the gym shower or by the pool, try on shoes in a store without socks.
Mycosis can be contracted in beauty salons if the masters do not properly process the tools for manicure and pedicure.
Some chronic diseases
Especially those associated with poor healing of skin lesions - wounds, calluses, cracks. For example, the skin of people with diabetes is more fragile and regeneration processes are slower. Damaged areas become gateways for fungal infections and more.
These include excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis), which develops on its own or as a symptom of an illness. An important role is played by the structural features of the foot - the narrow interdigital space in combination with hyperhidrosis creates favorable conditions for the development of fungi.
Wearing tight shoes also predisposes to the appearance of fungus, as it provokes the formation of calluses and damages the nail plate.
Types of mushrooms
There is currently no unified classification of mycoses, but most often fungal diseases are considered in relation to the prevalence of the process. Surface mycoses include:
- keratomycosis - the fungus is found only in the upper layer (thick layer) of the skin of the face and body (versicolor versicolor);
- dermatomycosis / dermatophytosis - covers the epidermis, dermatitis, hair follicles and nails (onychomycosis);
- candidiasis - mycosis of the mucous membranes ("thrush"), skin folds caused by the fungus Candida.
Systemic mycoses involve in infection not only the skin and mucosa, but also the internal organs (histoplasm).
According to the origin of the causative agents of fungal infections, they are divided into:
Of these, only the first are part of the normal human microflora. The rest of the fungi act as pathogens.
It is possible to reliably determine the type of fungal pathogen using laboratory diagnostics - stains or scratches from affected tissues. In systemic fungal diseases, a blood test is an element of diagnosis. Examinations will help to rule out pathologies with similar symptoms, such as fungal T-cell lymphoma of the skin.
Signs of skin fungus and nail fungus
The course of the fungal disease is mainly due to the variety of the causative fungi themselves. But, in general, superficial mycoses have similar symptoms of damage. Mycoses of the skin are characterized by symptoms such as:
- skin discoloration due to a fungal disease - redness or discoloration of the affected tissues;
- formation of light or weeping spots and plaques, which, as the disease progresses, may merge into one;
- itching at the focus of inflammation;
- the appearance of the crust.
When the scalp is affected, hair loss and brittleness are noticed. Dandruff can also be caused by fungal infections. On the face, fungus is often noted on the crease of the upper eyelid.
When the feet are affected by mycosis, painful cracks, burns, itchy blisters, thickening and digging of the skin are noticed. Sometimes an unpleasant odor can be present when a sore occurs. The skin in the spaces between the fingers is the most vulnerable place for the fungus. If a bacterial infection joins the disease, purulent ulcers appear on the skin.
Symptoms of onychomycosis: what does the nail look like when damaged?
- the nail affected during the disease changes color to yellow, black, brown or another shade;
- the nail plate becomes brittle, thick or, conversely, becomes thinner;
- the nail often separates from the bed, forming a "pocket";
- change in the relief or shape of the nail plate in case of an illness;
- inflammation of adjacent tissues (periungal fold).
Fingernails, especially on the big toes, are more likely to be affected by onychomycosis than on the hands.
Preparations for the treatment of fungi: how to choose
Medicines to prevent and treat fungal infections are called antifungals. According to the mechanism of action directed against fungi, antifungals can be divided into two types:
- fungicide - destroy spores of fungal infection;
- fungistatic - inhibit the activity of microorganisms (but do not kill) and prevent the spread of infection.
The potency of the medicine itself depends directly on the sensitivity of a particular fungus to the medicine, as well as on the dosage of the medicine itself. Therefore, one and the same agent may show fungicidal and fungistatic properties against different fungi-pathogens. But antifungal drugs, like many antibiotics, are often versatile and have a broad spectrum of action.
Oral administration of drugs for the treatment of fungal diseases is justified in cases where the infection:
- does not respond to local therapy,
- is systemic,
- affects the internal organs. In more advanced cases, antifungal agents are prescribed in injection solutions.
An example of an effective remedy that treats systemic fungal lesions and extensive superficial skin and nail diseases is fluconazole. Release forms - tablets, capsules, powder for suspensions, liquids for injections.
Thus, for the effective treatment of skin fungi and nail fungus, it is better to use medicines for external use, as they do not have a systemic effect and almost do not cause side effects. Local remedies come in the form of:
- drip solutions (including nails);
- spraying solutions;
- antifungal manicures.
Before using the medication for fungus, you should read the instructions or consult a doctor.
Tools for the treatment of fungus on the skin of the body and feet
The review of remedies for the treatment of fungi of the head, body and feet, as well as nails is for informational purposes only. Data on antifungal drugs are taken from official instructions. Before using them, you should study the note or consult your doctor.
Antifungal drugs for external use. The action on fungal pathogens depends on the dose.
- In small concentrations, the drug has a fungistatic effect, in large concentrations it has a fungicidal effect.
- Effective against dermatomycetes, fungi such as yeast and fungus, pink lichen pathogen and some bacteria. In susceptible fungi, resistance to clotrimazole drugs is formed relatively rarely.
- As a topical remedy, the drug is used in the treatment of fungal lesions of smooth skin, interdigital fissures in the foot, complicated secondary mycoses, diaper rash fungi of the skin.
- The duration of local drug treatment depends on the severity of the disease, the effectiveness of treatment, and the specific form of release.
In gynecological practice, it is used in the treatment of the lungs, as well as as a prenatal disinfectant.
Examples of medicines with clotrimazole for the treatment of fungal diseases of the skin of the body and feet
Creamapply 2-3 times a day with a thin layer on cleansed areas of the skin. Treatment of dermatomycosis lasts at least 4 weeks, pityriasis versicolor - 1 - 2 weeks. With fungal diseases of the skin of the feet, the course continues 2 weeks after the elimination of the symptoms of the lesion.
DUSTshould be applied to the skin 3-4 times a day, while improvements are noticed after 3-5 days of treatment. To prevent recurrence of the disease or fungal complications, they are also used within 2 weeks after healing.
Solutionfor external use requires a dual application to the affected areas during the day.
Compared to a creamy texture, ointments take longer to be absorbed into the skin, but soften the crust.
Creamwhich, in addition to clotrimazole, contains the glucocorticoid beclomethasone, which relieves itching and inflammation in the affected areas of the skin, has an anti-allergic effect and reduces exudation (release of fluid from wounds).
It is indicated for the treatment of advanced and uncomplicated mycoses of various parts of the body, the skin of the feet, including those with eczema. The product is applied to the prepared skin 2 to 3 times a day.
- A cream containing three active ingredients - clotrimazole, beclomethasone and gentamicin. The latter is an antibiotic.
- The cream is used for infected secondary dermatoses, dermatomycosis and epidermophytosis of the arms, legs and feet twice a day.
- The duration of the cream treatment is not more than 4 weeks.
A drug with a predominant fungicidal effect against dermatophytes, mold, yeast and yeast-like fungi. It can be used both internally for systemic diseases and externally.
- Terbinafine tablets are used for fungal infections of the scalp, skin fungus and nails, common fungal skin lesions, mucosal candidiasis and epidermis.
- Externally, the drug is used to treat and prevent dermatomycosis of the smooth skin of the body, including feet and legs, groin area, diaper rash, fungal infection, pityriasis versicolor.
Examples of terbinafine products for the treatment of fungal skin diseases
Creamcan be used by 12 year olds. In the treatment of mycoses of the skin of the trunk, feet and legs, it is applied once a day for 1 week. If there is thickening of the skin on the feet, cracks, itching and skin, the treatment is extended up to 2 weeks, 1-2 times a day. A similar scheme is for skin candidiasis and multicolored lichen.
For diaper rash, gauze can be placed on top, especially at night, to reduce discomfort.
Aerosolthe duration of treatment for skin fungus is reduced to 1 week (1 time per day), but is suitable only for adults. The skin should be completely wet, so that the product is applied in sufficient quantities.
Dermgelused for fungus in the same way as spraying. It is chosen with added sweating of the feet, as it has a drying effect due to its high alcohol content. Plus, the consistency of the medicine gel has a cooling effect, which eases itching.
Antifungal with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. Promotes rapid disappearance of itching and inflammation. Fungicidal and fungistatic action depends on the type of causative agent of the disease.
Used in the treatment of nail fungus, pityriasis versicolor, fungus of folds and large feet, bacterial complicated fungi.
Examples of naftifine remedies for the treatment of fungal diseases of the skin of the body
Creams and solutions for external use.
The method of application of both forms is the same: the preparations are applied to the dried and cleansed skin in the affected area, capturing 1 cm of healthy tissue. With dermatomycosis and candidiasis of the skin, treatment lasts up to 4 weeks, if necessary, it can be extended up to 8 weeks.
Antifungal with fungicidal and fungistatic activity. Has an antibacterial effect against streptococci and staphylococci. Used for dermatomycosis of soft skin and scalp, inguinal folds, candidiasis.
Tools for the treatment of nail fungus
In the treatment of nail fungus, special medicinal varnishes are often used. The composition of many of them as an active substance includes amorolfine, an effective agent for external use with a broad spectrum of action.
This drug exhibits fungicidal and fungistatic activity by destroying the cell membrane of fungi. After application, the product absorbs the nail and penetrates the bed during the day. The therapeutic concentration on the nail is reached 7 to 10 days after the first application.
Rate of fungal infection:
- should not touch more than 2/3 of the nail surface;
- if the prevalence of nail fungus is higher, consult your doctor for an effective antifungal tablet.
Before applying the products, you should remove the top layer from the affected areas using the files that are usually included in the bag. Files should not be used on healthy nails.
After preparing the plate, thoroughly treat the surface with an alcohol swab in order to disinfect, degrease and remove the cut nail particles. Using the applicator, completely cover the nail with a uniform coat of varnish. Drying time for nails is approximately 3 minutes. Avoid getting makeup on the soft glued ingredient to avoid drying out the skin.
The treatment of nail fungus continues until the nail plate is completely restored, and getting rid of it is so easy. Therefore, you need to be patient, because the process takes about 6 months for fingernails and 9-12 months for toenails. The application procedure is repeated 1-2 times a week.
During the treatment period, you should abandon artificial nail extensions and the use of decorative clothing. Although some products allow you to cover the affected nail plate with cosmetic makeup, it is better to avoid this. Why
The structure of the nail affected by the fungus becomes cheaper and more sensitive to external factors. Thus, the pigment contained in the decorative varnish eats deeper and can affect the final shade of the "cured" nail.
The drug can be used not only for treatment but also for the prevention of fungal infections of the nails. They are not suitable for children, pregnant and lactating mothers.
In the treatment of onychomycosis, some "skin" agents with naftifine are also effective. Show fungicidal properties against fungi-dermatophytes, have a fungistatic effect on fungi of the genus Candida.
Before using the products, nails that have signs of fungal infection are also pre-polished with a nail file and trimmed with scissors. Then apply all over the surface, covering with a thick bandage, twice a day.
The course of treatment is 6 months, with complicated forms - 8 months, after which it continues to be used for 2 weeks to prevent recurrence.
Antifungals have contraindications. When applying at home, do not be guided by reviews, but only by official guidelines.